初二上册英语第二单元知识点外研版

更新时间:2022-08-10 19:57:26 八年级

Unit 2.How often do you exercise?一.、重点短语归纳:1.go to the movies =go to the cinema去看电影2.look after=take care of 照顾3.surf the internet 上网4.healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式5.go skateboarding 去滑滑板watch TV看电视6.keep healthy=stay healthy= keep in good health保持健康keep +形容词,“表保持某种状态”do some reading 阅读7.exercise= take/do (much) exercise=do sports锻炼8.eating habit 饮食习惯9.take more exercise 做更多的运动10.be the same as 与什么相同11.once a month一月一次12.be different from 不同13.twice a week一周两次.three times a week一周三次14.make a difference to 对什么有影响如:As teachers, you must believe that you can make a difference to the lives of your students.身为教师,你们必须坚信你们能够影响学生的一生。如:A false step will make a great difference to my future. 错走一步对我的前程来说会产生很大影响。15.how often 多久一次,询问动作发生的频率how many times 多少次 ,用来提问做某事的次数16.although=though虽然 17.most of the students=most students大多数学生18.shop=go shopping=do some shopping 购物19.as for至于20.activity survey活动调查21.do homework做家庭作业22.do housework做家务事23.eat less meat吃更少的肉24.junk food垃圾食物25.be good for 对什么有益26.be bad for对什么有害27.want to do sth 想做某事28.want sb to do sth想某人做某事29.try to do sth 尽量做某事30.come home from school放学回家31.of course=certainly=sure当然32.get good grades取得好成绩33.some advice 一些建议some advice 中的 advice 是不可数名词a piece of advice 一则建议give advice 提出建议take one’s advice 采纳或听从某人的建议34.help sb to do sth帮助某人做某事=help sb with sth35.a lot of vegetables=many vegetables许多蔬菜36.hardly= almost not几乎不hardly ever很少,几乎不,从不37.keep/be in good health保持健康38.your favorite program你最喜欢的节目39.Animal World 动物世界40.play soccer踢足球41.every day每天42.once or twice a week 每周一两次43.three or four times a week 每周三四次44.at Green High School 在格林高中45.all students 所有的学生46.most students 大多数学生47.some students 一些学生48.no students 没有学生49.the result of a survey 调查结果50.the result for “watch TV”“看电视”的调查结果51.improve your English 提高你的英语52.drink milk 喝牛奶53.pretty healthy 相当健康 pretty,adv. 相当,非常Pretty(用作副词时) =rather=very=quite 非常,相当54. kind of = a little有点I think I’m kind of unhealthy.我想我有点不健康。55.on weekends在周末56.ask sb. about sth.就某事询问某人57.by doing sth.通过做某事58.go online去上网59.the answer to the question问题的答案60.stay up late熬夜61.the best way to do sth.做某事的方式62.at least twice a week一周至少2次63.such as 比如;诸如64.less than少于《----》more than多于65.hardly ever几乎从不66.swing dance摇摆舞67.go to bed early早点睡觉68.in one’s free time在某人的业余时间69.help with housework帮忙做家务70.old habits die hard积习难改71.play tennis打网球72.have dance and piano lessons上舞蹈课和钢琴课73.go shopping=do some shopping购物74.spend time with sb.和某人一起度过时光75.spend time/money on sth.在某方面花费时间或金钱76.spend time/money (in) doing sth.花费时间或金钱做某事77.sometimes=at times有时78.help with housework帮助做家务二、重点句子:1.How often do you exercise? 你(你们)多久锻炼一次身体?解析:How often + 助动词do(does或did) + 主语 + do sth.?疑问词how often是问频率(多久一次),(在这里助动词do(does或did) 是起帮助构成疑问的作用)与一般现在时或一般过去时连用,回答一般是用表示频率的副词,如:once, twice, three times…, sometimes, often, quite, often, never, every day, once a week , twice a month , three times a month , three or four times a month等。Eg1)——How often do you go to the factory?——Twice a week.你们多久到工厂去一次?每星期两次。Eg2)——How often does he go shopping?——He goes shopping once a month.2.——“What do you usually do on weekends?”——“ I usually play soccer.”“周末你通常做什么?”“我通常踢足球。”解析:第一个do为助动词, 在这起帮助构成疑问的作用;而第二个do则是实义动词。Eg1)What do you usually do on weekends? I often go to the movies.Eg2)What does she usually do on weekends? She sometimes go hiking.3.——“What’s your favorite program?”——“It’s Animal World.”“你最喜欢什么节目?”“动物世界。”4.As for homework , most students do homework every day .解析:as for...意思是“至于;关于”,常用于句首作状语,其后跟名词、代词或动词的-ing形式(即动名词)。如:As for him,I never want to see him here. 至于他,我永远不希望在这里见到。As for the story,you'd better not believe it. 关于那故事,你不要相信。As for myself, I don’t want to go now. 至于我自己,我现在不想去。As for the man, I know nothing about him. 至于那个人,我什么都不知道。5. Mom wants me to get up at 6:00 and play ping-pong with her .解析:want to do sth. 意思是“想要做某事”;want sb. to do sth.意思是“想要某人做某事”。如:Eg1)Do you want to go to the movies with me?你想和我一起去看电影吗?Eg2)The teacher doesn't want us to eat hamburgers.老师不想让我们吃汉堡包。注意:有很多动词后面用这种结构做动词的复合宾语,如:ask sb. to do sth. 叫某人做某事tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人去做某事help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事6. She says it’s good for my health.解析:be good for...表示“对……有益(有好处)”;其反义为:be bad for...。(这里for 是介词,后跟名词、代词或动名词)如:Eg1)It's good for us to do more reading. 多读书对我们有好处。Eg2)Reading in bed is bad for your eyes.在床上读书对你的眼睛有害。7. How many hours do you sleep every night?8. I exercise every day , usually when I come home from school .9. My eating habits are pretty good .解析:这里pretty相当于very 。10.I try to eat a lot of vegetables , usually ten to eleven times a week .解析:try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是否成功的意思try doing sth.表示“(用某一办法)试着去做某事”。如:eg)You’d better try doing the experiment in another way.你试试用另一种方法做这个试验。11. My healthy lifestyle helps me get good grades.解析:help sb.(to) do sth.帮助某人做某事12. Good food and exercise help me to study better.解析:这里better是well的比较级,而不是good的比较级13.Is her lifestyle the same as yours or different?=Is her lifestyle the same as your lifestyle or is her lifestyle different from yours?解析:be the same as … / be different from …14. What sports do you play ?15. A lot of vegetables help you to keep in good health .解析:keep in good health = keep healthy = stay healthy16. You must try to eat less meat .解析:try to do sth.表示“尽力做某事” ,不包含是否成功的意思,less是little的比较级17. That sounds interesting.解析:这是“主语+系动词+表语”结构的简单句。sound(听起来),look(看起来),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(觉得),seem(好象),grow(变得),get(变得)等词在英语中可用作系动词,后跟形容词作表语。如:Eg1)It tastes good. 这味道好。Eg2)The music sounds very sweet. 这音乐听起来很入耳。Eg3)The smoke grew heavier and heavier. 烟雾变得越来越浓了。18. I think I’m kind of unhealthy.我想我有点不健康。解析:kind of = a littlea kind of 一种19.Exercise such as playing basketball is fun.像打篮球这样的锻炼是有趣的。20.although=though虽然 如:Although he is old, he is quite strong.(He is old, but he is quite strong.)解析:句子中,有although或though就不可再用but,但可用yet或still“仍然,还”;与之类似的情况:有because就不能再用so.21.She says it’s good for my health.她说它对我的健康有好处。解析:be good for对…有益;其反义词组:be bad for对…有害如:Eating vegetables is good for your health.吃蔬菜对你的健康有益。辨析:be good for ,be good at ,be good withbe good for“对…有益”;be good at“擅长于”;be good with“和…相处的好”;如:I’m good at playing football.Are you good at children?22.How come?怎么回事?解析:表示某件事很奇怪,有点想不通。可单独使用,也可引导一个问句,相当于疑问词why.但how come开头的特殊疑问句使用的仍是陈述语序。如:How come you didn’t tell me about it?=Why didn’t you tell me about it?你怎么不早点告诉我这件事?23.well,how about Tuesday?哦,那星期二怎么样啊 ?解析:How about…?=What about …?,“…怎么样”,用来向对方征求意见。如:It’s very sunny today ,how/what about playing tennis?24.Twenty percent don’t exercise at all.20%的学生根本不锻炼。解析:“not…at all”“一点也不;根本不”如:He didn’t do his homework at all yesterday.昨天他根本没有做作业。拓展:not at all “不客气”=you are welcome.如:---Thank you very much.---Not at all三、词语辨析1.注意sometimes与几个形似的词的区别。(1) sometime是副词,意为“在某个时候”,“某时”例:Will you come again sometime next week?(2) some time是名词词组,意为“一段时间”,做时间状语用例:I will stay here for some time.我将在这呆一段时间。(3)some times是名词词组,意为“几次,几倍”例:I met him some times in the street last month.上个月我在街上遇到他好几次了。(4)sometimes 是频度副词,意为“有时”=at times例:He sometimes goes skateboarding on weekends.他有时周末去滑滑板。2.time意为“时间”时,为不可数名词。意为“次数,倍数”时,为可数名词,例1:What time is it?例2:I go to the movies three times a week.注意:1)“次数”的表达方法:一次once;两次twice;三次或三次以上用基数词加上times:three times、five times、one hundred times.2)表示“……几次”的表达方法是:once a day/ a week/ a month/ a yeartwice a day/ a week/ a month/ a year3.same与different解析:1)same指“相同的”,前面通常要有一个定冠词the,但是如果same前面已经有this,those等词,不能再与the连用了。例:We are in the same class.我们在同一个班级。结构:the same as与......一样如:例:His mark is the same as mine.他的分数和我的分数一样。2)different译为“不同的”,其后的可数名词应为复数形式。例:We are in different classes. 我们在不同的班级。结构:be different from与......不同例:This sweater is different from that one.这件毛衣与那一件不同。different的名词形式为difference, 复数形式为differences。4. hard / hardly1)hard: hard既可作形容词,也可作副词。adj. 辛苦的,困难的adv. 努力,使劲地例1:He had a hard (adj.)time in the past.例2:It's a hard (adj.) question. (=difficult)这是一个难的问题。例3:The boy studies very hard (adv.). 那男孩学习非常努力例4:He works hard. 他努力工作。结构:It's hard for sb to do sth 做某事对某人来说是难的。如:例:It's hard for him to finish the work. 完成那项工作对他来说很难。注意区分:hard work 困难的工作work hard 努力工作2)hardly:hardly是频度副词,表示否定的意思。(=almost not)通常用在形容词、副词和动词之前。hardly: adv. 几乎不,简直不例1)I can hardly see it.我几乎看不到它。例2)He hardly works. 他几乎不工作。反意疑问句:It hardly rains here, does it?5. how often / how long / how soon / how far1)how often: “隔多久一次”,指动作的频率,答语常用often, never, twice a week等表示频率的副词或短语。(用于一般现在时或一般过去时)例1)How often do you go to the movies?例2)Once a week. / I never go to the movies.2)how long: 1)“(延续)多长时间”,答语常用for+时间段或since+时间点。(用于各种时态);2)询问物体的长度。例1)How long is the Yellow River?例2)How long have you learned English?例3)I have learned it for 5 years.例4)I have learned it since 5 years ago.3)how soon:“还要多久才…,多久以后”,答语常用“in+时间段”。(用于一般将来时)例1)How soon will she come back?例2)She’ll come back in an hour.4)how far:“多远”,询问距离。例1)Can you tell me how far it is from here to your home?例2)——How far is it from your home to our school?——It’s 2 kilometers away.6.句型“It is+adj.+(for sb)to do sth."和“It is+adj.+(of sb)to do sth.区别"两个句型中,for sb和of sb怎么区别,在使用时要注意adj是说明sb的品质特点的还是说明to do sth的就可以了.即:说明sb的品质特点用of sb;说明to do sth用for sb.,简单一句话说就是:说人的用of sb.; 说事的用for sb。1)for sb.常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy,hard,difficult,interesting,important,impossible等;如:It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。如:It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。例:It is difficult for him to finish the task within two hours.(difficult 说明完成任务难) It is kind of you to help me.(kind说明你善良)7.across与through区别across为“横穿”,与“道路”交叉形成“十字”,即:从物体表面经过,如:过河、过桥、过马路。而through为在立体空间中的“穿过”即:从物体内部经过,如:穿过森林、隧道。如:go through the forest“穿过森林”;go across the street “穿过大街”8. every day与everyday区别1)every day作状语,译为“每一天”。如:We go to school at 7:10 every day.我们每天7:10去上学。I decide to read English every day.我决定每天读英语。2)everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。如:She watches everyday English on TV after dinner.她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。What's your everyday activity?你的日常活动是什么?9.stay up与stay up late区别1)stay up “熬夜、不睡觉”如:He stayed up all night to write his story.他熬了一整夜写他的小说。2)stay up late“熬夜到很晚,迟睡”如:Don’t stay up late next time.下次不要再熬夜很晚了。四、语法专项频度副词1.定义表示抽象的次数、频率的副词称为频度副词。常用的频度副词按频率发生的高低依次为always>usually>often>sometimes>seldom>hardly ever>never如:He hardly never exercises.他几乎从不锻炼。注意:表示具体的次数、频率时,一次用once,两次用twice,三次及以上用“基数词+times”表示。如:I play soccer twice a week.我每周踢两次足球。She watches TV four times a week.她每周看四次电视。2.在句中的位置1)一般放在实义动词前,be动词、助动词、情态动词之后。如:We never eat junk food.我们从来不吃垃圾食品。I can hardly say a word.我几乎说不出一句话来。He is sometimes very busy.他有时很忙。2)有些频度副词也可位于句首,但表示不同的含义①simetimes常用于句首,和位于句中区别不大。如:Sometimes Jack plays computer games.②often用于句首时,通常表示强调,且其前一般有quite,very修饰。如:Very often he goes online.他上网很经常。③usually有时也可用于句首,其前不用修饰语。如:Usually my father gets up early.④always一般不用于句首,但可用于祈使句中。如:Always remember this.请时刻记住这一点。3)对频度副词提问时,用特殊疑问词how often。如:--How often do you exerxise?--Hardly ever.几乎从不。

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